No Study without Struggle
Today we talk about confronting settler colonialism in higher education. My guest is Leigh Patel, Professor of Urban Education at the University of Pittsburgh, and President of Education for Liberation. In her new book, No Study without Struggle: Confronting Settler Colonialism in Higher Education, Leigh shows how the ability to study has always involved some form of struggle by groups historically marginalized in the USA. Her book is a love letter to study groups around the world.
Citation: Patel, Leigh, interview with Will Brehm, FreshEd, 258, podcast audio, October 18, 2021.https://freshedpodcast.com/patel2/
Will Brehm 0:24
Leigh Patel, welcome back to FreshEd.
Leigh Patel 1:32
Thanks so much. I’m so excited to be in conversation with you again and be a guest on the podcast.
Will Brehm 1:37
So, I actually want to start by going back in time a little bit and talking about an 1872 painting by John Gast that is called American Progress, which you mentioned in your new book. And this painting is really some sort of an allegory for the idea of Manifest Destiny and sort of American westward expansion. Can you describe to listeners what that painting means to you, and actually even what it looks like? What is that painting of?
Leigh Patel 2:05
Yes, thanks. That’s a wonderful beginning point because it also really provides the landscape, so to speak, of settler colonialism. So, when I’m looking at this painting, what I’m seeing like a first thing that jumps out to me: I’m looking at basically the topography of the middle-ish part of what most Native peoples would call Turtle Island, a lot of other people would call the United States. And so, I know, I’m looking at that. And then the biggest other thing that I see right away is the figure and etching of a White woman, long flowy hair, she’s wearing a White flowing dress, she’s holding a book in one arm, but she’s so big, and she’s off the ground, she’s in the sky. So, she looks angelic-like. And she is looking westward. And I take in then other parts of the painting, and what I see depicted is kind of a progression of different men -White men- who are dressed in different ways. So, in the left side, what I see are covered wagons first. So, I see some White men with horses and they’re controlling covered wagons, and they are heading West. Everything’s pointed westward. And then behind the covered wagons are some other White men in stage coaches, again, heading west. And then behind those, so the far right hand corner of the painting, are trains. And I don’t see any people with those trains. It’s just trains coming. So, I get the idea of like, oh, there’s some technological innovation going on here from the horse covered wagons, to the stagecoaches, to the train. So, that’s all heading westward. At the very left side of the painting, which would be like perhaps the edge of this wild west, I think that’s part of what’s depicted as well. On the left side, there is like more tree, more brush, more grass. And there are a few people who would appear to be Native American and they look to be running. So, that’s just a hint at what this westward expansion and Manifest Destiny is. That image is in almost every American history textbook that is used in secondary schools. And it’s usually on the page that says Manifest Destiny. And that Manifest Destiny text teaches students that this was the mindset, that it is not only an option to but it is the duty of people by the proclamation of God, of Christianity, to expand westward. And in that expansion, even as we look at what’s not in the painting, it’s important to note. So, we see no Enslaved people from the continent of Africa or their descendants by this time as we’re talking about westward expansion. You see none of that. We see no Chinese men who were imported basically for their labor and many whom died building those trains. It’s important also that we really think about what is going on with this floating big angelic-like White woman because that also helps us to think about -if we take a step back- the amount of anti-Black violence, including lynchings that occurred for the protection of White women. So, while the painting aims to do kind of a simple storytelling of why it was, what happened in this westward expansion, who did what, and how technology was there and progressed, it also really opens up a great door to talk about -so, this is actually a depiction of settler colonialism. And what’s missing also helps us to understand how it narrates itself, how it invisibilizes and erases out of history. So, it’s a fantastic point, to start with. That painting does a lot for understanding settler colonialism. Like, yeah, that is actually what happened. And then here are the things that were erased from that. And all of this is happening on the ground, on top of the ground. And even that on top of the ground, it kind of primes people for thinking about land as just a surface upon which all of this happens, instead of land being a form of life and being in relation constantly with all living beings.
Will Brehm 6:16
It’s so fascinating that in your book, you mentioned this painting and describe it. And it is this really quite an amazing educational moment to sort of think through, and open up, and critique the ideas of settler colonialism as you’re being beginning to do here. I find it fascinating that I’ve also come across it in other sort of workshops and events on decolonizing the curriculum. It sort of has become this exemplar of what a lot of people are trying to work sort of through and try and unpack some of these histories. And as you said, some of the absences that are in that painting. And yet at the same time, it’s still so celebrated in curriculum, right? It’s still being taught in probably many schools across America today as exemplar of the Manifest Destiny, not necessarily settler colonialism. So, I guess, to think through settler colonialism a bit more systematically based on that picture, how do we begin to conceptualize that notion of settler colonialism particularly in the American context?
Leigh Patel 7:21
Yeah. Thank you so much for that because settler colonialism is one kind of colonialism. So, there have been other kinds. So, there is colonialism in which an empire -it could have been the British Empire, it could have been the Spanish one, it could have been the French one- visits another part of the world and does some extraction. We can think about the Philippine Islands and how in the United States, so much of the healthcare industry, particularly the lower hourly wage paid workers in the health care industry, there’s a concentration of Filipina workers who care for children in many White upper-middle class and upper-class families. And those people in that labor have had a steady trend of being exported from the Philippine Islands and that also edges into some population of Philippine teachers. So, there are many forms. And settler colonialism is a specific form of colonialism in which people from another region arrive to a land -and when I say land, I’m including like airways, waterways, land, all of that included- arrive to a space and say, “This looks good. Now, this is ours”. And there’s a couple things that get in the way of saying “Now this is ours”, primarily, the fact that there are people already there living in relation with the land. And so, by claiming land as like, not just ours, but as our property, the conversion of land into property, an ownable thing. So, that’s an important feature of settler colonialism. Settler colonialism has also involved -and I’m using the past tense here but it’s a structure where there are lots of ways that we can see this in the present. It involves -the interest of owning property, you don’t want to work the land so much as you want to own all of the riches that come from the land. So, that’s where settler colonialism also includes the component of importing chattel slavery. So, when African peoples were captured on the continent, they were immediately considered property at the moment of capture. So, even before the Middle Passage over the Atlantic, where those ships stopped in several places, it helps us to understand some of the history in Brazil, and the Dominican Republic, and Haiti, and Cuba, and Puerto Rico. So, those people were considered chattel property and such as property and enslaved and they were brought to work the land. And so, Christina Sharp has a beautiful book called In the Wake that really discusses beautifully what does it mean to be in a settler colony and be in the wake of a ship, in this case, a slave ship and understand oneself and one’s community? So, there’s a seizure of the land and turning it into property. There’s the importing and the seizure of people, which by the way, that’s how the insurance industry just got started in the United States -fun fact. So, there’s the importing of chattel slavery, in that enslaved labor, that stolen labor, is used for many different purposes including our foremost and first institutions in the United States. The Ivy League schools were built by enslaved labor, the White House was partially built by enslaved labor. So, it includes the seizure of land, the importing of chattel slavery, and this ongoing need to erase Indigeneity. So, the ongoing need for Native Peoples to not have their sovereignty. To not be able to have their relationship to land. It wasn’t until 1978 -just to point out how long-going this has been- it wasn’t until 1978 that Native Peoples were able to engage in their own religious ceremonies, that it was recognized by the federal government. And if we even pause for a moment to think about, so this federal government that is kind of young in the history, when we look at long, long histories to then say to peoples whose lands and land relationships they’ve occupied for centuries to, “It’s alright, if you go ahead and celebrate your religions”. From that perspective, you can see how long of a project this is, and how it still maintains settler-slave-native triads,
Will Brehm 11:29
Thinking about settler colonialism in that sort of three different components about erasing indigeneity, the issue of theft of labor, and then the issue of land is so clear in John Gast’s painting as you started with. But like you said, this is a structure, and they exist in the present today. So, if we were to talk and turn towards higher education, which is what your book really focuses on, are there structures of settler colonialism today in higher education that we can sort of point to and say “There it is. We can see it living in the present”?
Leigh Patel 12:04
Yes, absolutely. Thank you for that question. So, one of the things that’s important to understand about settler colonialism is that it’s not an event, it’s a structure. It’s an ongoing structure. And in higher education, one of the ways that we can see it as an ongoing structure is most blatantly by the lands upon which universities were built. And it’s become more common to do land acknowledgments. I think it’s a good thing but it’s an incomplete thing. So, I would think about it as a necessary but insufficient gesture. So, if we acknowledge and do some quick research into who are the Native Peoples? And even in people’s minds, it’s as if they think like, who were the Native Peoples who were here before the university. Native Peoples are alive and there’s often a misperception in the United States, and sometimes also in Canada and Australia that Native Peoples are in rural areas or on reservations, or they were [inaudible]. And that’s not true. They’re in urban areas more so actually, when we look at population numbers than they are in rural areas. However, they’re in both. So, just by gesturing to Native Peoples who were the people, better more accurately stated, are the people who are in living relation to the land. That acknowledgement acknowledges the relationship, but it doesn’t necessarily destabilize the university and its relationship to that property and occupying that property. And in so many cities and Davarian Baldwin writes about this really well in his recent book, In the Shadow of the Ivory Tower. He writes about “eds and meds” cities and where I currently am employed in the city of Pittsburgh -Pittsburgh, in United States, was Steel City. It was a strong union city. That industry has gone now, for all intents and purposes. It’s an eds and meds city. And so, I’m turning there just to point out that the universities in Pittsburgh are the largest employers, they are the largest landlords in that city. So, that relationship to land as property is really strong for universities. When it comes to knowledge and status, those are also ways that we can see this idea of owning and the accumulation of wealth being very important. And I would say probably for both of us, but I would ask you this too. For me that’s a big loss right there. When the university’s project becomes about its status, its ranking, and its ownership of knowledge. So, having lots of journals and information behind paywalls that aren’t readily accessible to people who don’t have some kind of usually money-brokered relationship with university. Either they work for the university, or they receive a stipend for being a student, or they’re a staff person at the university. And lots of universities staff people don’t have library privileges. So, this kind of anointing of knowledge as something that one has, and one can own, and other people don’t have access to it is an animation of settler colonialism. And then I’ll just point out one other one which is access. Who gets access to higher education? And what some of the things that I talk about in the book, one chapter in particular is devoted to debt and profit relation and how many students and faculty, faculty of color and students of color, Native students, Black students, Asian, Latin-X, Chicana-X, so many students, first-gen students in so many ways are communicated that they should feel -not lucky it’s more sophisticated language- but definitely that they are receiving something from university and so they should feel indebted to it. And that’s communicated regularly to students, to faculty, to some staff people, it’s communicated to people who are in these positions of diversity, equity, and inclusion. If they’re thrown some crumbs of money to do some programming, that they should be appreciative of these things. But when we think about actually how the image of Black and Brown students on universities, websites, and brochures and Black and Brown faculty who are gathered together for a meal with a candidate of color, that’s doing a lot of work for the university, so that it does not appear to be a settler colonial project. That it doesn’t have that appearance of racism. So, that way in the book, I try to unsettle that debt relationship that’s so often conveyed. And then there’s just the aspect of large student debt.
Will Brehm 16:29
One of the things cutting through a lot of what you just said, there is this issue of racism and race, which obviously has sort of plagued America since its founding as a country, as a Nation-state of America. But you make an argument in the book that racism is definitely something we need to name, and see, and talk about but it’s not sufficient, in a way, for beginning to understand the problems that particularly higher education faces. And that settler colonialism is, in a sense, a better lens through which to begin understanding what we’re seeing and experiencing. Can you explain a little bit of why racism, although important to think through, is sort of not enough? And we need to sort of embrace that idea of settler colonialism?
Leigh Patel 17:14
Yeah. I use racial capitalism as a lens many times in the book as well. So, racism is a system of oppression that we must contend with, we must confront in many ways, we must dismantle in many ways. And then the constantly recreating relationships that are not based on the idea that Whiteness is better. And it’s essential, and I would use this language again, necessary but maybe we need some other things as well. So, settler colonialism, to me, it’s a way of understanding a little bit more of the dynamics and the relationships among Native People, as I would understand myself with a nod to Dean Saranillio work- arrivants who are here, who become settlers in many ways, descendants of settlers who originally were part of the European invasion, and people who are just straight up settlers. Just like, “Oh, this is new! I want to gentrify this area”. For example, massive gentrification is an animation of settler colonialism. Now, it often has components of pushing out Black and Brown people with White populations coming into that area. But if we think about it with settler colonialism, then I think we’re also not just offered the opportunity but obligated to think about what’s going on with the land there, and the relationship to land? What happens to the ancestral knowledges linked to those lands when peoples are removed from those. And where do they go? What happens to them? So, I think it allows us to, and again obligates us, to think about the dynamics of place, living beings, and what we do, and how we justify it through what narratives. So, going back to that John Gast painting, it is, as you said, so well, it’s in so many history textbooks. It’s right there. It’s often taught like sort of on its face value. Like, so there was this time, Manifest Destiny, and people moved westward and now we have San Francisco and Seattle and isn’t that great and Los Angeles. And yet we always have this opportunity to look at it and do a much better analysis that would help ours, and I mean all students, because it does a disservice to White students also to make sense, maybe on their own, of lynchings and modern day lynchings and modern-day murders in the name of protecting White women. If they have no way of being taught about that and taught about also the Black Radical tradition, about Indigenous survivors, we’re doing them a great disservice. And that painting is a wonderful opening to like, let’s look at what’s here. Let’s look at this kind of the narrative that we’re being taught about technological advancement as just objectively good when that’s really arguable. And let’s talk about what’s missing from here. So, settler colonialism, to me brings in those dynamics of land and peoples and who must we always protect, and at whose expense? And racism covers a great deal of that. I just have to work a bit harder to talk about the gendered roles, for example, that settler colonialism rolled out on purpose. The ways that it rolled out ableism on purpose, and all of these oppressions kind of work with each other. And just to be able to do a little bit more with that lens.
Will Brehm 20:42
Your book is not simply about settler colonialism. It’s actually quite inspirational in a way because it is about the absolute struggle that people go through to study and learn. And that struggle is sort of essential to overcome and come to terms with settler colonialism, but also sort of a byproduct of it in a sense. That all these groups that have been marginalized, they still struggled to learn even if they were, in a sense, excluded from these formal spaces of higher learning. So, can you talk a little bit about, what has that history of struggle for learning and studying looked like in America, given this context of settler colonialism, given these structures that are so oppressive?
Leigh Patel 21:29
Thank you so much for that question. Yeah. In lots of ways, I was trying to write a love letter to study groups in this book, and a love letter to learning, although I know from the title it might not feel like that. But struggle is a really beautiful trajectory and history. It’s this beautiful fact that as Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o would phrase it, that the decolonial has always been present in the colonial. And so, as people have been oppressed -as literacy was literally outlawed for enslaved peoples. And that just gives me pulse of how powerful literacy is. How powerful it is to be able to read and write together. So powerful that a governing agency would outlaw that flat out. And we do that in different ways now without that law. We take children and youth who are emergent, bilingual, or multilingual learners, and say, well, they need redactive learning that really helps them to catch up with, in a sense, monolingual US born English speakers. So, we’re still doing that kind of like “No, you’re not really quite ready to have the full force of language, and the full force of your own language”. But when it comes to really understanding the fact that freedom struggles have always been going alongside colonization, including racism, including patriarchy, to me, it’s just really important to lift those things up. So, for example, there’s the history that Robin Kelley talks about in Hammer and Hoe, where semi-literate, illiterate people gathered and learned about Marxism from each other in the early 1900s in the south. There are things that we can learn about from the university where I’m employed, the University of Pittsburgh, we have something called the Black Action Society, a student group. That student group was formed in the 1960s. And they read poetry by Nikki Giovanni, they read poetry and essays by June Jordan. They didn’t get that material from the libraries at the University of Pittsburgh because it didn’t hold those. They got those in zine format basically, in pamphlets from bookstores in traditionally Black neighborhoods. And so, there was this form of fugitivity of escape from the overarching project. And whether it was in side passages or whether it happened in study groups that maybe had been on campus or off campus, the location is not as important in that it’s in some relation to higher education. But what it’s doing is I think it has a lot more integrity as a form of learning, and learning for the purpose of self-determination rather than as compared learning for the purpose of getting a credential. So, that been a constant throughout this history of colonization.
Will Brehm 24:17
And are these -you call them fugitive learning- are these spaces of fugitive learning typically found in university settings? And is that struggle sort of, in reaction in a sense to the university system? Or are they also found outside of those formal spaces, where people might form together and struggle together for whatever it is?
Leigh Patel 24:39
Beautiful question. Thank you. So, fugitive learning and fugitive pedagogy -and there’s a person named Jarvis Givens, who has a wonderful book about this. Fugitive pedagogy and anti-racist teaching -because that’s something that’s on a lot of things that I read right now- again, in reaction to the televised murder of George Floyd. So, there’s a lot of talk of anti-racism right now but the fact is that for Black populations, for many brown populations, migrants, for many, many subjugated populations, anti-oppressive education has always been there because their lives depended on it. So, your question of like, where is this mostly within? Or is it outside? It’s been both. So, it’s been in homes -where as Ruby Sales put it, who I was so lucky to be able to interview and some of that interview is in the book- when I asked Ruby Sales, “Where did this come from? This tremendous work that you did in the 60s, the work that you continue to do now”? And she said, “Well, I was raised in a counterculture. I was raised in a home where we knew our ancestry and where we knew our history as a source of power and strength. And not as one of where we need to try to attain this position or try to walk and talk and act like White people in power”. She was like that was never what we were…that was definitely what she calls the fascist system in the South. She says “but that’s not the house I was raised in. I was raised in the counterculture”. And in her town, she talks about the reputation that her family had. And she said that “We were recognized as people who were educated and knowledgeable. So, I never questioned even when I went off to university” -this is in her words- “I never questioned that I was a learned person. So, I didn’t fall for this idea that I was the other”. To put it into Toni Morrison’s words how she would say so often, she’s like, “I’ve always seen myself at the center” even when other people would see her as “other”. She says “No, I’m at the center. I just had to help the center to understand”, and I’ve always been in the mainstream. So, it’s happened in homes, it’s happened in classrooms, it’s happened in groups within universities, in formal schooling, outside of that. It’s happened in all locations because people find ways.
Will Brehm 26:58
And what about student protests? How is this connected to learning, pedagogy, and resistance when it comes to student protests, which we know have a long history in America?
Leigh Patel 27:09
Oh, with student protests there’ so much to say. Let me limit myself to a couple things. It is important to note that they almost always are related to protests that happened, so to speak, in the streets. They are almost always related to that. It’s also important to note that, because we might think about like the 1960s, it would be a mistake, even in that era of many uprisings on campus to think like, the majority of Black students were all involved, or the majority of Chinese students, Asian students were involved in the Third World Liberation Front organizing -that wasn’t the case. But that organizing was so strong and effective that it’s left an imprint. So, out of those protests came the establishment of Africana Studies departments, of Women and Gender Studies departments. An important thing to note from the 1960s, particularly the Black Student Movement protests is they actually were in opposition to the university. They weren’t asking for departments to be created. They were in opposition to the university as holder of knowledge. They were like “No, we’re in opposition to all of how you operate as the holder of knowledge and the gatekeeper of knowledge”. And student protests that we’ve seen really pretty steadily since 2015, the demands were different because the context is different. Different things happening in corporate America, different things happening with capitalism. So, there were protests -I’m thinking when I was a college student in undergrad, and I was involved in anti-apartheid organizing. And so that was a form of student protests at that time. During contemporary times we’re seeing student protests that absolutely are connected to Black Lives Matter, are connected to a struggle for rights of trans people, of LGBTQ people. We’re seeing protests in demands for students to have -there’s been a lot of opinions about safe spaces, the demand for safe spaces. And it’s a different iteration of protest because it’s a different context. And people have a whole lot of opinions about safe spaces. And I always tell my students well, as a person, as a woman, who we call that my ancestry is from the Third World. I kind of refuse to call India, a developing nation -that’s just inaccurate, sadly inaccurate in lots of ways. But I don’t expect universities to be safe places for me. But there’s always the possibility where we can create our own spaces of learning, where we do learning on our own terms. And we study hard so that we might move into action, better informed, but I don’t expect it to ever love me -these places.
Will Brehm 29:41
It makes me wonder about the sort of contemporary protests that you mentioned, that are in connection to Black Lives Matter and thinking about it in comparison to those 1960s’ student protests that you also mentioned. And in the 60s, you say that those protests were organized in opposition to the university as a whole, the very structure of the settler colonial university. Are the protests, say, in the wake of Black Lives Matter, are they being organized in opposition to universities as the structure of universities themselves? Or are they being organized with a slightly different take and focus?
Leigh Patel 30:20
Generally, I would say that they are not so much in opposition to the university. And there’s variations. So, there was a student strike at the University of California, Santa Cruz. And that was very much about material conditions of students. And they were organized as students, like we are workers, we need to be unionized, organized, you need to pay us cost of living increases. So, there was the Cola movement across the UC campuses. And so there have been demands for material things. I think a little bit more frequently, we’re seeing demands for more Black faculty. And this is also where I turn to Sara Ahmed’s work. And her work that she did in a book called On being Included and lots of work that she’s done since about universities. And Robin Kelley, there’s a beautiful series called Black Study Black Struggle, in 2015, in the Boston Review and in the initial essay of that series, Robin Kelley says -[I don’t know if she says it exactly this way] but- a university can hire lots of Black faculty at usually incoming assistant professor levels. And that can do almost nothing to alter power relations in the university because they can not retain those professors. They can have those professors be working so hard to get tenure that those professors don’t agitate anything about the structure. So, those students demands coming from places of wanting Black people, in this case, to have positions of well-being and being able to influence some knowledge systems in a university, it’s kind of easy for the universities, speaking largely, to do that. But do it in a non-performative kind of way. To do it in a way that doesn’t alter power relations or knowledge systems.
Will Brehm 32:06
You have a beautiful phrase in the book, that “symbolism is not transformation”. So, I mean, given this, and in a sense, as you said, this is a love letter to study groups but also a very sort of realist understanding of what is happening. And as you even say, in your book, you sort of cutting it close to the bone here to make it uncomfortable for people. What are some ways forward? You know, like, if we could end on a positive note, how can we use study groups to agitate for structural change? To changes of power relations? What would be some tips?
Leigh Patel 32:42
So, some tips. Well, the first tip is to form a study group. Find some common interests, some common questions. Form a study group. It will lead to, “Oh, this reminds me of this text, or this podcast, or this interview”. And people can really tussle with the idea of what is the transformation that we’re seeking? And how is it that we’re thinking about that for multiple populations? So, I think study groups are such a powerful entity. When we learn for learning’s sake, when we learn for the sake of being in relation with each other, it tends to build collectivity. So, that’s tip number one -big and maybe through like 13. And then maybe tip 14 is, learn from history, learn from contemporary movements. Like we have existing Freedom Schools, that we could take a look at. The recently passed, wonderful Bob Moses, tells us so much about let’s use math as a trajectory for liberation. So, the Algebra Project. Let’s study what other people have done to make education a tool for liberation. So, there’s lots of examples. And that doesn’t mean that that’s what we need to do in this moment but it gives us examples of how people formed, how the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee came into existence and purposefully was a horizontal structure and not a hierarchical one. So, we can see some echoes between the Black Lives Matter movement and the Movement for Black Lives and its non-attachment to one charismatic leader. We can see some similarities between that and today. So, study groups, learning from history helps us to refine like, what is it -because we don’t want to just like, tear down everything. We don’t want to be standing around in a bunch of shards and pieces of metal. We want to tear down as we’re building. So, study groups allow us to actually form relations in the interest of each other’s wellness. And those are really strong backbones then upon which we can start to rebuild or build from examples that we’ve seen. What does it mean to be in relation and learn together and widen, open who gets to learn?
Will Brehm 34:57
Leigh Patel ,thank you so much for joining, FreshEd again. Always a pleasure of talking.
Leigh Patel 35:01
Thank you, Will. Thanks so much for having me back. I appreciate it.
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Related Guest Project/Publications
No study without struggle: Confronting settler colonialism in higher education
Generations of fugitive literacy teacher education and activism
Fugitive practices: Learning in a settler colony
Painting by John Gast – American Progress
The Middle Passage
Christina Sharpe – In the wake
The American Indian Religious Freedom Act and the Religious Freedom Project
Land-grab universities: The foundation of land-grant university system
In the shadow of the ivory tower – Davarian Baldwin
Black radical tradition – theory and practice
Robin Kelley – Hammer and Hoe
Poetry by Nikki Giovani
Essays by June Jordan
Fugitive pedagogy: The longer roots of antiracist teaching
Third World Liberation Front
On the Black Student Movements (1960-1970)
On being Included – Sarah Ahmed
Robin Kelley – Black Study, Black Struggle
The Algebra Project
Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
Movement for Black Lives (M4BL)
Black Lives Matter
Treasury of Weary Souls
Lynchings in America website
Racial lynching interactive map
Racial capitalism and the Black student loan debt crisis
Anti-racist teaching and learning collective
Investing in Native communities
History through a Native lens
Indigenous freedom through radical resistance
Histories of Indigenous sovereignty in action
Indigenous Activism Organizations
Indigenous Environmental Network
Have any useful resources related to this show? Please send them to firstname.lastname@example.org